From JOLs to JOLs+ (Wong & Lim, 2019, JEP: Applied)
Updated: Feb 16
Reference Wong, S. S. H., & Lim, S. W. H. (2019). From JOLs to JOLs+: Directing learners’ attention in retrieval practice to boost integrative argumentation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 25(4), 543–557. https://doi.org/10.1037/xap0000225
Abstract The effects of retrieval practice on complex, meaningful learning outcomes that require more than just basic recall are of ongoing interest in the test-enhanced learning literature. Across two experiments, we investigated the extent that retrieval practice boosts integrative argumentation—the integration of opposing viewpoints to form conclusions. Participants were tasked to form an integrative argumentation response after reading a text containing arguments for and against an issue. We found that retrieval practice alone produced superior long-term retention of text content, but not better use of integrative stratagems relative to repeated study (Experiment 1). However, when retrieval practice was augmented with judgments of higher order learning (JOLs+) that oriented learners’ attention toward the critical elements of integrative argumentation (Experiment 2), it led to the use of more integrative stratagems, relative to retrieval practice supplemented with judgments of learning (JOLs) that assessed the degree of material learned or remembered, and a notetaking condition paired with JOLs+. Importantly, the improvement in learners’ use of integrative stratagems persisted even after controlling for the number of idea units in their responses. These findings suggest that JOLs+ serve as a potent metacomprehension monitoring intervention when paired with retrieval practice to enhance higher order learning outcomes. Public Significance Statement
To what extent does retrieval practice boost higher order learning performance, beyond basic memory recall? Here we show that learners’ integrative argumentation performance—their ability to evaluate, weigh, and combine opposing sides of an issue—is enhanced only when they have practiced retrieving information in an argumentative text from memory and are, crucially, further guided to direct their attention to the key elements required for effective integrative argumentation.