Educational Psychology






Photo: Marco Montalti

Educational Psychology

Deliberate Errors | Higher Order Learning


In the traditional Japanese art of kintsugi, broken ceramics are given a new lease of life by mending them with lacquer dusted with gold—instead of being concealed, the cracks on the damaged artifacts are illuminated with seams of gold, and valued as part of the objects’ unique history.

Indeed, errors are inevitable in life. Whereas they have traditionally been viewed as aversive events, my research has developed a Prevention–Permission–Promotion (3P) framework that considers how errors can be best positioned to enhance learning (Wong & Lim, 2019, Educational Psychologist). Notably, my work has demonstrated that deliberately committing and correcting errors even when we already know the correct answers produces superior learning than avoiding them—a counterintuitive phenomenon that I have termed the derring effect (Wong & Lim, 2022, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General; Wong & Lim, 2022, Journal of Educational Psychology).

My research also draws on psychological principles to develop interventions that improve higher order learning outcomes. For instance, I have shown that retrieval practice supplemented with a novel metacomprehension monitoring intervention—judgments of higher order learning (JOLs+)—boosts learners' integrative argumentation, which has been associated with better critical thinking (Wong & Lim, 2019, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied).

Positive Psychology

Wisdom | The Good Life

More broadly, I am interested in positive psychology applied in higher education. A fundamental goal of contemporary higher education is to holistically prepare learners for life beyond graduation, such as nurturing students' integrity in relation to their personal and social responsibility (Wong, Lim, & Quinlan, 2016).

How can we use our knowledge meaningfully in service of a common good, and in pursuit of the good life?

My forthcoming research integrates and extends my current work on errors to innovate evidence-based pedagogical methods aimed at cultivating wisdom as a form of timeless learning, beyond developing students' intellectual knowledge.

Ultimately, the overarching goal that drives my research is to translate my findings in real-world contexts to promote human flourishing in and beyond the classroom.


Music Psychology

Music Cognition & Education

As a musician, I have an enduring fascination with applying psychological principles to shed light on music cognition and to support musical learning. 

For instance, I have found that the use of mental imagery fosters young children's creativity when composing music (Wong & Lim, 2017).

My work has also demonstrated that interleaving is an effective technique when learning music composers' styles (Wong, Low, Kang, & Lim, 2020) and melodic musical intervals (Wong, Chen, & Lim, 2021).


These findings offer applied value in guiding music education practice, toward nurturing learners' musical skills and expertise.